Número atual: 3 (2020)

Utilização de enxerto ósseo autógeno na reabilitação dos maxilares

Resumo: Introduction: The bone tissue loss process can occur due to several factors, causing functional, aesthetic and psychological problems in the patient, making rehabilitation treatment difficult using dental prostheses. In this context, this article aims to conduct a scientific review of the literature, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts, elucidating the main indications for dentistry. Review: The recovery of edentulous areas using autogenous bone grafts plays an important role in dentistry, providing an adequate prognosis for the patient, as long as the treatment is well elaborated within the ideal conditions of bone quantity and quality. The intraoral donor areas are made up of the mentonian symphysis, branch and maxillary tuberosity. The skull cap, iliac crest, ribs, tibia and fibula are the extra-oral donor areas. The intraoral donor areas exhibit good biological properties in the reconstruction of small and medium bone defects, corresponding to approximately four dental units. In cases of extensive bone regeneration, the use of extra-oral donor areas is indicated, with the iliac crest being the most commonly used, due to the good bone quantity it offers. Final Remarks: The use of autogenous graft has the advantages of its excellent biocompatibility between the donor and recipient areas, enabling bone regeneration techniques to be performed in a dental office with the use of local anesthesia, showing a low cost and a high level of aesthetic acceptance for the patient. However, in extensive defects, surgery should be performed in a hospital environment under general anesthesia with a multidisciplinary team, presenting a high cost. Keywords: autogenous bone graft, bones substitutes, oral rehabilitation. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo

Aspectos atuais na formação e preparação dos profissionais da saúde frente aos cuidados paliativos

Resumo: Introduction: Palliative care (PC) behaves like a philosophy that promotes quality of life for patients in their stages of progressive and terminal illness, providing support in the physical, mental and spiritual dimensions, without giving up the individual attention of each individual. The objective of this study is to present, through an integrative literature review, the performance of health professionals in palliative care, demonstrating the importance of a multidisciplinary team in this area. Review: Humanization in palliative care consists of meeting the needs of the patient, whether he is diagnosed with a terminal chronic disease or not, thus, humanization and palliative care are related in concept and practice, and must be initiated from the initial stage of the disease to its advanced stage. When it comes to the composition of the team of professionals, it must contain doctors, psychologists, nurses, physiotherapists, social workers and occupational therapists, as these professionals assume specialized care with a focus on patient care individually, as each individual reacts differently. different to a therapeutic one, with short or long term interventional actions. Final Remarks: The finitude of life process requires health professionals to be prepared not only for practical competence. However, there are signs of absence of teaching and pedagogical approaches in the theme of PC, addressing this theme during the graduation of the student in the health area, will add fundamental issues, both for the professional and personal scope, making it empathic to deal with patients facing the end of life, offering respect and the necessary care. Keywords: palliative care, physiotherapy, teachers, teaching. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo

A utilização de tecnologias virtuais no planejamento de cirurgias ortognáticas

Resumo: Introduction: Orthognathic surgery aims to correct dentoeskeletal deformities, improving aesthetics and function of the patient. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out an accurate planning of the treatment to be performed. The aim of this study is to present, through an integrative literature review, the advantages of using virtual technologies in planning orthognathic surgeries compared to conventional methods. Review: Virtual planning software is useful in predicting results, accuracy and reducing working time, both in planning and in surgery. The three-dimensional (3D) planning allows the incorporation of the third dimension, making it possible to increase the anatomical structure on the computer screen and interact with the bone structure, without changing the accuracy of the images and measurements. Thus, to perform orthognathic surgery, it is necessary that the surgical planning is well elaborated. With regard to the virtual planning method, the advantages of its use stand out, the reduced working time during planning and execution, as well as the preparation of surgical guides that assist in the procedure and satisfactory evaluation of postoperative results. Final Remarks: For an orthognathic surgery to be performed, it is necessary that the surgical planning be well elaborated. With regard to the virtual planning method, the advantages of its use stand out, reduced working time during planning and execution, clinical feasibility, better precision in diagnosis and treatment plan, data storage, preparation of surgical guides that assist in the procedure and satisfactory evaluation of postoperative results. Keywords: orthognathic surgery, surgery, computer-assisted, orthognathic surgical procedures. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo

Perfil clínico epidemiológico do câncer gástrico: revisão integrativa

Resumo: Introduction: Stomach Cancer (or Gastric Cancer) is the growth of abnormal cells in the organ of this digestive system and can occur anywhere in its extension. Much of this type of tumor occurs in the mucous layer (the inner lining layer), appearing in the form of irregular small lesions with ulcerations (rupture of the mucous tissue) - characteristics of cancers or malignant tumors. Objective: To characterize the clinical epidemiological profile of gastric cancer in patients with the disease. Revision: It is an integrative review developed in five stages: careful search in the LILACS and MEDLINE databases; selection of articles, dissertations, theses and monographs according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the proposed theme; analysis of articles, dissertations, theses and monographs, which will be suitable in categories according to the approach; year of publication, which will be the type of study and journal in which it was published; construction of the article and public defense of it. Results: In this integrative review, 04 articles were analyzed that met the inclusion criteria previously established. Final considerations: The research showed the highest incidence of gastric cancer in males between the ages of 40 and 60, but this incidence has been decreasing, according to some recent articles, the choice of healthy eating habits and the decrease in consumption of alcoholic beverages and smoking habits, are favorable factors for the decline of this pathology. Keywords: adenocarcinoma, stomach cancer, feeding behavior, stomach neoplasms, health promotion, digestive system. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo

A contribuição da psicologia no processo de adoção

Resumo: This article denotes part of the studies related to the Final Work (TF), defended in 2018, at the Center University of Northern (Uninorte). Psychology makes its great contribution in the most diverse social contexts, in the understanding of the subject, whether related to his way of being, in the development of family and social dynamics, and also of the new family outlines and arrangements. Psychology plays a crucial role in this process, since adoption also includes the legal aspect; which is a specialty that applies the knowledge of psychology to the field of law. The study presents an integrative literature review in order to highlight the contribution of psychology in the adoption process, a context experienced by children and adolescents, and by parents, candidates for adoption. The study aims to analyze the role of the psychologist, from the opening of the adoption process to the release of the filing of the adoption action, where it contributes significantly to psychosocial care and adoption processes. The review of articles related to the theme was guided by the descriptors "adoption, family and psychology". The results show great advances in research on adoption and significant changes, but that the child is still stigmatized in the face of a lengthy and bureaucratic process, as well as scenarios in which there is a compromise in creating bonds between the child and the adopter, in addition to problems concerning the idealization by both parties, in which there is a distorted idea of reality. Issues related to the new family configurations were also detected, with same-sex couples inserted in the adoption process, and relying on the support of psychology to demystify socially established concepts. Based on scientific evidence, it is concluded that the contribution of psychology is fundamental for the correct construction of family bonds and support in dealing with the emotional burden during the process and adoption, by both parties. Keywords: adoption, family, psychology. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo

A importância da avaliação dos sinais e sintomas da disfunção temporomandibular para a odontologia

Resumo: Introduction: Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMJ dysfunction) encompasses a set of signs and symptoms, involving the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint, as well as associated structures, such as teeth and nerves. The aim of the present study is to address, through a bibliographic review of the literature, the main signs and symptoms of TMJ dysfunction, aiming to establish a more accurate diagnosis, thus favoring a better quality of life for patients. Review: TMD etiology has a multifactorial character, being associated with muscle hyperactivity, trauma, emotional stress, malocclusion, in addition to other factors such as pathologies, perpetuating this condition. The most frequent signs and symptoms evaluated in the literature were limited mouth opening, pain during chewing, pain in the ear and temporomandibular joint, and clicks in the joint. The etiology of temporomandibular disorders is still very controversial and discussed among health professionals, such as dentists, doctors and physiotherapists. Final Remarks: It is important to note that, in view of the studies observed, that young adult patients were the individuals who were more likely to develop disorders in the temporomandibular joint, but among this group, women were the ones who most presented symptoms, especially pain, and these findings may be associated with significant hormonal variations, especially at puberty. Keywords: temporomandibular joint, parafunctional habits, temporomandibular dysfunction. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo

Principais fatores de riscos relacionados a queda em idosos e suas consequências: revisão integrativa

Resumo: Introduction: With the increase in life expectancy over time, there is an increase in falls resulting in fracture of the femur among the elderly. Objective: identify the main risk factors related to falls in the elderly and their consequences, so that both the government and society are aware of these risks and their consequences. Revision: As methods, an integrative literature review was carried out through the databases, VHL and SciELO using as descriptors: '' Elderly '', '' Treatment '' and '' Femoral Fracture '' associated with the Boolean operator "AND" '. Discussion: As a result, we obtained 8 publications that fit the theme, 100% of the publications developed through field research, all articles were included in this integrative review. Final considerations: t is concluded that the risk factors related to falls in the elderly and their consequences are associated with several factors, such as: age, health status of this elderly person before the fracture, among others, adding to the high effective cost of treatment and the lack a strict hospitalization protocol and surgical procedure. Keywords: accidental falls, risk factors, femoral fractures, elderly, public health, patient safety. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo

O papel do sistema imunológico na patogênese da doença periodontal

Resumo: Introduction: Periodontal disease is characterized by a disturbance of the microbiota present in the oral environment, causing an immune response in the individual, thus affecting the protection and support tissues of the periodontium. Therefore, this article aims to elucidate the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Review: The immune system uses specific mechanisms promoted by cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, mast cells and neutrophils, as well as mechanisms associated with specific molecules, characterized as anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, proteinase inhibitors and metalloproteinases (MMPs), which together, being present in the active phase of polymicrobial periodontal disease. The progression of periodontal diseases is induced by an inflammatory process that gradually leads to its destruction, causing tooth loss. The innate immune response actively participates in the development of periodontal disease and the acquired immune response is related to disease progression and destruction of the alveolar bone. On the other hand, the humoral immune response is shown to be related to the protection of periodontal tissues, with positive results. Final Remarks: MMPs, TNF-alpha, RANKL and IL-1 have been reported as an effective tool for diagnosing the disease. Although there is a wide knowledge about the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases, other studies still need to be carried out to better understand the cellular and molecular events involved in this pathology. Keywords: periodontal diseases, immunity innate, adaptative immunity. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo

Ocorrência da tuberculose em profissionais da Saúde entre os anos 2014 e 2018 no Amapá

Resumo: Background: Studies indicate that health professionals are highly exposed to the risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis. In the state of Amapá, there are still no studies specifically targeting tuberculosis in healthcare professionals. Objective: Survey on the occurrence of tuberculosis in health professionals in the state of Amapá between the years 2014 and 2018. Material and methods: It is a descriptive study with a quantitative approach in which secondary data obtained from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) through the State Health Surveillance Superintendence (SVS) were used. The collected information was transferred to a spreadsheet in the Microsoft Excel 2010 application and then to the Tabwin program version 4.1.5, where the results were calculated and tabulated. Results and discussion: 28 cases of tuberculosis in health professionals were diagnosed between 2014 and 2018 in the state. The municipality of Macapá recorded the highest number of cases (85.7%), the predominant form was pulmonary (90%), female (68%) and brown race (68%) were more affected and the age group from 20 to 29 presented the highest number of cases. Conclusion: The importance of completeness in the data provided by SINAN and the importance of knowledge of the presence of tuberculosis in health professionals in the state are emphasized. Keywords: epidemiology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, health personnel, Amazon region, public health, Tuberculosis. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo

A importância do psicodiagnóstico em professores universitários portadores da Síndrome de Burnout

Resumo: Introduction: The term burnout has an English origin, usually used to denote a state of energy depletion, associated with intense frustration with work situations. This article sought through an integrative literature review to address the psychodiagnostic aspects associated with burnout syndrome in university professors. Review: The burnout syndrome is a response to chronic work stress, being defined as a condition related to physical, emotional and behavioral exhaustion, usually related to the result of prolonged stress or frustration that are linked to work, considering that in the routine of There are psychosocial stressors linked to the essence of the job, as well as the organizational and social context in which they work. Discussion: For the enumeration of risk factors associated with the development of burnout, four dimensions are taken into account: the organization, the individual, work and society. What corresponds to the risk factors in the organization for the onset of the disease are the lack of autonomy, respect for team members and the boss, very strict institutional rules, overload of working hours. Final Remarks: The individual's peculiarity may be associated with minor or major in relation to the disease, and psychodiagnosis is understood as a systematic and time-limited process of knowledge about psychological functioning in specific situations. Keywords: Burnout, teachers university, psychodiagnosis. Expandir Resumo Acessar Texto Completo